Frequenty Asked Questions

Top Questions

FAQ's overview

Accelerated Ejectors

What design guidelines should be considered for the ‘AEP’ and ‘AEB’ versions of D-M-E Accelerated Ejectors? 

1. Use the Accelerated Ejector item # AEB-10 for up to 10-7/8 wide X 23-1/2 long mold bases.
2. Use the Accelerated Ejector item # AEB-20 for up to 23-3/4 wide X 35-1/2 long mold bases.
3. Use guided ejection in ejector assembly.
4. Maximum stroke for any unit is 5/8. This provides a 2:1 ratio.
5. Use early ejector return to return ejector assembly.
6. Accelerated ejectors should not be used to overcome springs. Springs may cause the plate to deflect and bind.
7. When using the AEB device, a minimum of four units is required. 
8. Lubricate pinion occasionally with a lithium-type grease or oil containing P.T.F.E.
9. AEB and AEP units: Body and Racks are carburized to R/C 45-50.

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Air Poppets

What is the purpose of an Air Poppet in a plastic injection mold?

 An Air poppet is used to assist with molded part ejection. A small amount of gas is blown into the mold cavity (or off the core) at a desired location to assist with separating the molded part from the desired mold parting line feature. Examples using DME Air Poppets is with deep-draw parts (i.e. buckets) or thin-walled molded parts.  Air flow is timed to coincide with the ejection cycle, and this air flow opens the valve to break the vacuum and facilitate part ejection.  

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Can I use a DME Air Poppet to remove trapped gas or air bubbles from my molded part, as part of the injection molding process?

 Please note that DME Air Poppets are not designed to vent gas from a part cavity.  DME Air Poppets apply a small amount of air in the part ejection cycle to assist in part ejection from the core or cavity.  Therefore DME Air Poppets are not recommended for removing air bubbles found in a molded part, either mid-stream in a molded part or at the end of the flow front.  

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Where can I find recommended installation instructions for my DME Air Poppet?

 Installation instructions are provided with the packaged part.  Installation hole sizes and tolerances are given in the DME Mold Components Catalog as well. Use a plastic or rubber hammer when installing the Air Poppet into the installation hole, do not use a metal hammer.  Do not strike the front, flat face of the valve.  Do not modify the front, flat face of the valve in any way, as this can affect the final operation of the Air Poppet valve.  Maintain a close tolerance press fit as shown in the DME Mold Components Catalog.  Too loose of a fit could allow the Air Poppet Valve to move out of position, while too tight of a press fit could interfere with the movement of the valve. Additional warnings and instructions are given in the DME Mold Components Catalog as well as with the instructions provided with the packaged product..

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Can I machine a gate dimple into my DME Air Poppet?

 No, do not machine the face of a DME Air Poppet.  You should not require a dimple in a DME Air Poppet because a DME Air Poppet should not be placed in front of the cavity gate or in front of a hot drop.  If you do place the DME Air Poppet in front of a cavity gate or hot drop, we cannot guarantee proper functioning of the DME Air Poppet.  If you machine the front face of the DME Air Poppet (to add a dimple) this can interfere with proper actuation or functioning of the DME Air Poppet.

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Angle-Pins

When installing my DME Angle Pin, should I use lubricant?  Are there any recommendations for installing my DME Leader pin into my mold?

 The product is shown on page 14.1 of the DME Mold Components Catalog.  Angle Pin inserts are “rear-load” meaning that the inserts are installed from the stationary-side of the A-plate (as shown on the afore-mentioned catalog page).  Angle pins and angle pin inserts are used to actuate sliding core blocks and are often used in conjunction with a form of core slide retainer (DME offers several forms of slide retainers).
 
Product dimensions are given on page 14.1 of the DME Mold Components Catalog.  Recommended installation specifications are also given in the form of printed instructions that are packaged with the product. If you would like an electronic copy of these instructions, please contact us.  Please note that mold makers are expected to fit the inserts to the mold, and are responsible for adding an anti-rotation key to prevent rotation of the angle pin insert.

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Baffles

What are the differences between DME Plastic Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffles and DME Brass Baffles?

 The primary difference is material – which is seen in the product name.  Plastic baffles are made from a proprietary plastic used most commonly in automotive radiators and therefore works well with temperatures most often seen in plastic injection molds.  There are temperature limits, however, for Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffles, as we do not recommend using Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffles in coolant application temperatures that exceed the regional boiling point of water (typically 100°C or 212°F, but may be lower at higher elevation).  Because of this limitation, we do not recommend using Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffles with oil or oil coolant.  For more information on warnings as well as recommended installation instructions, please refer to the packing slip for Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffles, found here http://www.dme.net/downloads/PackingSlips/ME-0615-PS-018.pdf .
 
Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffles are also unique in two other features:  First, there small “wipers” that are molded into the blade design and are designed to slightly deform during installation and turning of the baffle blade within the coolant circuit hole.  The wipers are designed to reduce water “blow by”, that is, water that finds its way around the side of the baffle, a problem for some mold makers who use brass baffles but have a coolant channel that is oversized enough allow water to pass the side of the blade.  It is possible to machine a tight tolerance coolant channel hole and obtain improved flow in a cooling channel, but this will translate into higher machining costs.  The wipers found on the plastic baffle will be more accommodating for normal tolerances seen in gun-drilled coolant channels or circuits.  
 
The other unique feature that is found in the Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffles, is that small “chevrons” are molded up the length of the baffle blade.  These chevrons are small, crescent-shaped protrusions that force the water flowing past these features to take on a turbulent flow pattern, which is ideal for heat transfer from the surrounding steel into the water.  

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Are DME Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffles reusable?  If I remove a DME Turbulent Flow Plastic Baffle from my mold, can I re-install the baffle, or should I install a new baffle?

 Because the baffle wipers adjust to the cooling channel during installation, and because the plastic threads will deform to the pipe thread in the plate, the plastic baffle should not be reused after removal from the plate cooling channel.  In such cases, a new plastic baffle should be used to replace the plastic baffle that has been removed from the cooling channel.  

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Brass Pressure Plugs

What type of thread in the mold base plate is recommended to be used with the DME Brass Pressure (Inch) Plugs?  How does this thread compare to Jiffy Tite Fittings?

 The threads used on the Jiffy Tite Plugs offered by DME are NPT (National Pipe Thread).  The requirements for NPT are defined in ANSI B1.20.1
 
The threads used on the DME Brass Pressure Plugs (inch type) are NPTF (National Pipe Thread Fuel). The requirements for NPTF are defined in ANSI B1.20.3
 
It is important to differentiate between the two thread types because they are not the same.  In layman terms, the NPTF spec is used with much tighter tolerances, so using an NPTF pressure plug with an NPT thread can reduce the amount of seal.  Some customers make up for this using pipe tape and when using pipe tape for any application it is important to use pipe tape that is rated for the intended mold temperatures or environment.  However, it is always recommended to use a female thread in the mold plate that is appropriately matched to the intended male thread.  If you have further questions regarding the above ANSI specifications, we recommend that you purchase a copy of the specification at an authorized online distributor of ANSI standards.  Please note that between the time of posting this information and you obtaining a licensed copy of the standard, the standard may be updated.  DME makes no assurance that the standards listed above are current and it is recommended that you check with your authorized distributor of ANSI standards for the latest version of the standards listed above.

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Bushings for Leader Pin

What is the difference between DME Bronze-Plated Leader Pin Bushings and DME Self-Lubricating Leader Pin Bushings?

 The bronze-plated bushings are bronze-plated over steel. The Self-lubricating bushings are made from a Bronze-Aluminum alloy and have oil-impregnated graphite plugs. Both types differ from regular steel bushings by increasing lubricity.  The bronze-plating can wear over time on the bronze-plated bushings, while the Bronze-Aluminum alloy used in the Self-Lubricating bushings does not have the same tensile or compressive strength as steel.  As such, a good preventative maintenance program is always recommended when using leader pins and bushings, as components can wear over time.  This applies to all bushing types, including bronze-plated guided ejection bushings, self-lubricating guided ejection bushings, and regular steel leader pin bushings.

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CAD Files

Cashew-Gate-Inserts

Can you provide any general recommendations in selecting, using or placing the DME Cashew Gate inserts in my mold?

 In general, selection of cashew gate insert size would be the same as designing a custom submarine or edge gate in a mold, feeding off of a runner.  If you are designing a mold and are unfamiliar with designing with submarine gates, we recommend that you consult a knowledgeable mold design house or shop who has experience with designing molds with submarine gates that feed off of runners.  If you wish to have a Mold filling analysis performed by DME for your molded part design, this is a service that DME can provide at a fee. Please contact your DME Sales Representative or call us for details on the Mold Filling Analysis Service that we offer.
Some very general rules of thumb include feeding one or two cashew gate inserts off of a single runner. In the case of two cashew gates being fed off of one runner, the length and size of runner feeding each cashew gate insert should be balanced with the same cross section and length.  It is also not recommended to feed more than two cashew gates off of one runner, and not in a star pattern or partial star pattern, as this can affect how the molten plastic flows to along the runner that feeds each cashew gate insert.  For more details on designing with submarine gates, please consult an experienced mold design house or shop.

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Collapsible Cores

What is the desired sequence of operation of the Collapsible Core for automatic mold operation?

As depicted on the “Mold Base Machining Dimension” pages of the D-M-E Collapsible Core Design and Assembly Guide, the cross-section represents a typical collapsible core mold design. The Collapsible Core is mounted in the ejector retainer plate; the center pin is mounted in the bottom clamp plate. An extended stripper plate has been incorporated for proper ejection and cylinders are shown installed for the last stage of the required 2-stage ejection. The use of guided ejection is vital to the design. The molding sequence is as follows: The injection molding machine platens open and the mold parts at the main parting line. When sufficient mold opening space is achieved, the ejector plate assembly is moved forward by the mechanical or hydraulic knockouts of the press. The ejector plate assembly with the collapsing core moves forward with the necessary stroke required to move the core of the center pin to collapse the core. (This is the first stage of ejection.) If the segments of the core fail to collapse for any reason during this stage, the positive collapse sleeve will come into play and ensure the start of the collapse. Also, the stripper plate and ejector plate assembly move together because the return pins are located directly under the stripper plate. This simultaneous movement continues until the ejector plate assembly is fully forward. At this point, a limit switch is actuated. This, in turn, actuates the cylinders to take over and continue to move the stripper plate with the stripper insert, moving the part away from the collapsed core. (This is the second stage.) When automatic part stripping is required, a means must be provided for carrying the molded part off the collapsed core at the completion of the ejector stroke. This is commonly achieved by providing a ring projection (.010 x.010 min.) on the face of the stripper insert. Shock dislodges the part from this ring and permits it to drop out of the mold at the end of the stripper stroke. The part must not drag over the core. When removing the part manually, the stripper ring and cylinders are not required. Note that the stripper plate actuation MUST be sequenced so that the cylinders have returned the stripper plate before the ejector plates are returned. This applies to all parts whether through molded or not. The stripper plate must always be returned to its original position before re-expanding the core. This will avoid interference of the stripper insert with the core and possible core damage.

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Collapsible Mini-Cores

Components

Controller Modules

Why does the display on my DSS or SSM temperature controller say Sho or Shi?

Most of the time, using a newer control module with an older mainframe that was built before January 1999 causes this. The older frames do not have the anti-arc clip installed in them. All new frames have the clip installed in them from the factory. The newer controls require the anti-arc clip (pin 3) installed in the mainframe. If the clip is missing, the controller will display a shorted input (Shi or Sho) diagnostic code. Other things cause this diagnostic to occur. They are discussed below. This diagnostic code means that the controller is checking for a 3-degree temperature rise in 60 seconds (fast load mode). If the controller does not see this rate of change, the controller will turn off the output power for that zone and alert the user with the diagnostic code. Also check for bare, pinched or twisted wires, or excessive distance between heater and thermocouple. Also check for insufficient wattage and/or voltage applied to heater. On the DSS unit, try changing the load type to slow load mode, (controller checks for 3-degree rise in 240 seconds), see below for instructions. This is usually caused by large loads, such as manifolds having too small of a heater, or too little voltage. Also check for damage to the electronic circuitry due to excessive input voltage caused by shorted heaters. Check for shorted heater in the mold.

What is a “thermocouple simulator”?

It is used to calibrate your controller. It simulates a thermocouple output at a specific temperature. It is used during the calibration procedure found in the user manual.

How do I get service for a module that is not working?

Please send your defective modules to: 
DME Company
1419 State Route 45 south 
Austinburg, OH. 44010
Please include contact information and a description of what problems you have been experiencing with the product. Module repairs are a fixed price.

Early Ejector Return Assemblies

What are the design guidelines and major considerations for Early Ejector Return Assemblies (Item # ER-101)?

1. A minimum of four units per mold are recommended. Two units per mold mounted on the centerline of the mold are a must. 
2. Use of guided ejection in the ejector assembly.
3. Use only in a horizontal press.
4. If used in an unbalanced mold, uneven loading could occur. This could cause problems for ER-101 units.
5. Occasional lubrication with a lithium-type grease.
6. Timing is critical: All units to be timed within +/-.005 of one another.
7. No preload of unit.

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Ejector Pins

Expandable Cavities

Heat Pipes

What is a Heat Pipe?

A Heat Pipe is basically a sealed copper-alloy tube filled with a thermally conductive gas mixture.  The gas mixture is non-toxic.  The device is designed so that when one end of the heat pipe is at a higher temperature than the other end, heat is rapidly and continuously transferred from the hotter end to the cooler end. Heat pipes are inherently more thermally conductive than copper.   Heat pipes will heat or cool within their temperature ranges and are available with maximum operating temperatures up to 600ºF (316ºC) (for high-temperature, use the TPH-type heat pipe).  Please note, if running water coolant in your mold, water coolant temperature should not exceed the regional boiling point of water (typically 100ºC or 212ºF, but may be lower at higher elevation).
Why is there a low temperature (TPL) and a high-temperature (TPH) series of Heat Pipes?
The lower the maximum temperature, the more efficient Heat Pipes are within their temperature range.

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Can Heat Pipes be machined?

No. Heat pipe heat conductors are designed to be installed into other structural components of the mold, as is, and cannot be machined. They contain a small amount of gas and, if punctured, the heat transfer gas will be vented and the device will stop functioning.

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Will Heat Pipes work in a horizontal position?

Yes. Heat pipe heat conductors have been specifically designed for mold cooling where the molds are usually in a horizontal position. The device will also function very well in a vertical position with the heat input at the bottom, but the units lose efficiency as the heat is caused to move downward.

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Do Heat Pipes cool differently than water?

Yes. Heat Pipes are so efficient that they can remove heat from plastic at higher water temperatures. This is due to the fact that the surface of the heat pipe is almost the same temperature of the water. Chilled water is not recommended and, consequently, as a side benefit, eliminates sweating and short thermal shocks. Heat Pipes also have a high thermal mass that cools the plastic in a different manner than water cooling. This provides a plastic part that is more stress-free than a water-cooled part. 

Note that for the TPL Series Heat Pipe, tower water that is usually 60-80ºF (15-27ºC) is recommended. The TPH Series Heat Pipe should be used with a water temperature of 90-110ºF (32-43 ºC), typically from a thermolator.

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Will adding Heat Pipes to other parts of the mold reduce cycle time?

Yes. Heat Pipes can be used anywhere there is a hard portion of the mold that is in contact with the plastic. Take that heat and move it back to the ‘cold’ base. Simply drilling holes and installing them into that section of the mold will reduce cycle time and tune up the mold to enable the production of better quality parts. Many people have tuned up their mold by adding many layers of Heat Pipes and benefited from greatly reduced cycle times.

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Heat Transfer Compound

High Temp Insulator Sheets

Hoist Rings

Where do I find installation or usage information for my DME Hoist Ring?

 For Inch-type hoist rings offered by DME USA and Canada, the instructions are provided attached to the locating ring.  Additional information is stamped onto the locating ring assembly itself. It is recommended not to remove these instructions from the locating ring assembly as improper usage or installation can be dangerous or even fatal.  
 
Installation and usage information for the metric-type hoist rings offered by DME USA and Canada is provided packaged with the hoist ring assembly, and additional information is stamped on the assembly itself.  Instructions are defined by the manufacturers of the metric and inch-type hoist rings offered by DME USA and Canada.  
 
WARNING: It is very important to properly follow all instructions provided.  Failure to follow the instructions provided with each product can be dangerous and even fatal.

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How important is position and orientation of my hoist rings in my mold?

 Very important.  Improper position or orientation of the hoist ring can greatly reduce the load carrying limit of the hoist ring.  Please refer to the manufacturer’s website for more details on recommendations for hoist ring position and orientation.  
 
For metric-type hoist rings offered by DME USA and Canada, please go to http://www.jergensinc.com
 
For inch-type hoist rings offered by DME USA and Canada, please go to http://www.americandrillbushing.com.
 
Note:  If you are using DME metric-type hoist rings in North America or South America, it is recommended to use the metric-type hoist rings offered by DME USA and Canada, as shown in the DME Mold Components Catalog.  It is also recommended to use hoist rings instead of eye bolts.  Eye bolts do not offer the same load carrying limits as hoist rings, particularly when side-mounted relative to the direction of lift.

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Interlocks

Are there general recommendations available over using a round tapered interlock versus a rectangular tapered interlock?

 Yes.  Rectangular tapered interlocks have a unique benefit of allowing plate growth either the X axis or Y axis of the mold (depending on the interlock’s orientation in the mold). Normally rectangular tapered interlocks are placed directly on the X or Y axis of the mold parting line. If you run one half of the mold (for example, the “B” half) significantly cooler than the other half of the mold, using rectangular tapered interlocks can accommodate for thermal expansion differences between the plates and still provide precise alignment. 
 
Note: Interlocks are used for very precise alignment of the parting line, to a greater extent than the mold’s leader pins.  If you have to run the mold haves at significantly different temperatures, it is important to check the molded part dimensions to make sure that there is no adverse effect on the final molded part dimensional conformity, due to significant differences in mold half plate temperature.  
 
Round tapered interlocks are recommended to be placed close to the center portion of the mold, to minimize on any potential impact of mold half plate temperatures.  The round feature of round tapered interlocks means that there is less accommodation for thermal expansion differences between the two mold halves.

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Where can I find installation instructions or specifications for DME Interlocks?

A: Packing slips are provided with side, top and X-style interlocks when ordered as replacement items by calling DME Customer Service or through your regional DME Sales Representative.  If you order a DME Mold Base with side, top or X-style interlocks already installed, no packing slip is provided for the interlocks as the interlocks are already installed. Electronic copies of these packing slips are available for download from the DME website, located here.  
 
For round and rectangular tapered interlocks, machined pocket installation specifications are not provided in the DME Mold Components catalog.  Instead, the outside dimensions of the components are provided, and mold makers are expected to fit to suit for the intended mold.  Suggested installation methods are also shown and described in the DME Mold Components catalog.  Please note that for round tapered interlocks, shoulder plates are offered and must be ordered separately.
 
For parting line interlocks (using left-hand and right-hand Gibs plus a center Male Interlock), machined pocket installation specifications are not provided in the DME Mold Components catalog.  Instead, the outside dimensions of the components are provided and mold makers are expected to fit to suit for the intended mold.

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Internal Latch Lock

What is the Internal Latch Lock?

The D-M-E Internal Latch Lock is a unique internally-mounted latch lock mechanism that adapts to a number of mold base sizes and plate thicknesses. It allows control of the mold plate opening sequence on mold bases with stripper plates.

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Can the Internal Latch Lock help with guided ejection and ejector assembly return functions?

The optional Internal Latch Lock’s Guided Ejection and Return Sleeves, although not required for the basic function so the unit, can add guided ejection and ejector assembly return functions to the mold base. While these added functions fall within the space requirements of the plate latching mechanism, they do create an early ejection return system that is occasionally required in some applications. 

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Jiffy Latch Lok Assemblies

What are the design guidelines and major considerations for use Jiffy Latch-Lok Assemblies?

A minimum of two Jiffy Latch-Lok Assemblies per mold are required. However, four units are preferred. Larger molds may require six, eight or more assemblies. 
The Latch-Lok should not be used to overcome springs. Springs can cause the plate to deflect and bind as soon as one latch bar is released, even if only the slightest timing difference is present. Latch bars and release bars must be properly aligned with the body. The bars should enter the body freely. The latch bar should be fully released prior to the stripper bolts starting to pull the plate. Check the stripper bolt length. There should be no preload on the latch bars in the locked position. Latch-Loks should only be used in a horizontal press; they are not recommended for use in a vertical press; Otherwise, the weight of the entire plate must be lifted.
When only two units are used, the bodies should be mounted on the centerline of the mold for balanced operation. If using more than two assemblies, symmetric positioning of the Jiffy Latch Lok assemblies about the mold centerline is recommended.  Balance is critical in so the mold design should be symmetrical. If not, be aware of any binding that may take place. 

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What size Jiffy Latch-Lok should be used?

 The following is based on usage of four Jiffy Latch-Lok assemblies in the mold.
            a) Mold Base Width of 7-7/8 and under ïƒ  use LL-050 assembly
            b) Mold Base Width of 9-7/8 to 14-7/8 ïƒ  use LL-101 assembly
            c) Mold Base Width of 15-7/8 and larger ïƒ  use LL-201 assembly.  
Please note that the desired speed for the mold open sequence can affect the recommended size of Jiffy Latch-Lok assembly used.  Also, the above mold base sizes consider standard offering for each size. If you are intending to use a special over-sized mold base, and/or if you are intending to use in a high-speed injection machine, it is recommended that either larger or more assemblies (more than four assemblies) be used.

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How should timing of the Jiffy Latch-Lok Assemblies be handled?

Timing of the Latch-Lok Assemblies should be within +/-.005 of each other for release bars and latch bars. This will prevent one bar from latching or releasing ahead of another assembly and causing deflection of the plate or the creation of an overload condition on the latch bar. Shock loads can adversely affect the ultimate strength of the latch bar. Therefore, mold open speeds may need to be reduced.

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Leader Pins

When installing my DME Leader Pin, should I use lubricant?  Are there any recommendations for installing my DME Leader pin into my mold?

 Yes, it is recommended to use a light lubricant such as oil containing P.T.F.E.  Some mold makers or service technicians prefer to use grease however it is important to make sure both the grease and the utensil used to apply the grease (i.e. brush) is clean of any metal chips, flakes or other debris as this form of debris can bind up between the leader pin and the mold during installation, and could cause galling.  During installation is also recommended to install your DME leader pin as straight as possible into the leader pin hole, with pressure applied to the top of the leader pin.  Striking the leader pin head on an angle can apply additional side loads that could cause galling during installation.  

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Locating Rings

Are there installation/machining instructions available for DME Locating Rings?

 Not at this time.  DME Mold Bases supplied with locating rings are already supplied with locating ring installation bore already machined, unless otherwise requested by the customer.  The same applies if you order just a top clamp plate for a specific size of DME Mold base.  
 
When ordering a DME locating ring alone, no installation or machining instructions are provided packaged with the locating ring.

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Do you offer Metric locating rings?

 Yes, in the DME Mold Components catalog.  We also offer a “blank” metric locating, through which you can machine the desired machine nozzle clearance hole (Inch-type “blank” locating rings are not available at this time).

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Mainframes

How do I modify my mainframe to work on single-phase 240V?

The back panel has a full schematic of where each wire should be attached in the mainframe. The brass terminals have “fast-on” connectors attached to the end of each wire that you need to move according to the schematic on the back panel. You can also consult your user manual or section-Q in the D-M-E catalog.

What is the anti-arc clip used for in the mainframe?

The clip is used to inhibit the triac from outputting any power until the module is fully inserted into the mainframe. This will assist in preventing arcing of the gold fingers when the controllers are accidentally inserted or removed while the power is turned on. The clip is installed in the 3rd position of each of the white edge connectors in the mainframe. Newer anti-arc equipped modules will not output any power until this anti-arc clip is installed in the mainframe. All mainframes built after January 1999 have this clip already installed in them. 

Mold Bases and Plates

Where can I find information on Metric mold bases and plates?

 All information regarding metric mold bases and plates can be found on the DME Europe website, located at http://www.dmeeu.com .  Metric plates are not offered as standard in North America, however can be ordered special for you if you require metric mold bases or plates.   There may be a premium charge in the special order.  Contact DME Customer Service for more information regarding metric mold bases or metric plates.

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What is the difference between a “US Standard” Mold Base, Mold Basics, Select Base and Edge Base?

 US Standard mold bases by DME refers to the primary DME mold base offering in the USA and Canada.  This standard was developed by DME in the late 1940’s and has been an industry standard for over 60 years.  Today, this includes A-Series, B-Series, X-Series, AX-Series, and T-Series, which may vary in the number of plates used but for the most part, component positions in the X- and Y-axis directions are positioned in the same locations.  For this reason, only the A-series plan views are detailed in the DME Mold Bases and Plates catalog. 
 
Mold Basics, Select Base and Edge Base are modeled after the US Standard A-Series mold base, with some variations.  Mold Basics was offered by DME as an economical form of the A-Series with some reduced or simplified features (although the Mold Basics mold base would be produced with the same exacting standards and quality as a US Standard A-Series mold base). For example, a Mold Basics mold base would not be shipped with finished ground parting line surfaces, and the mold maker would be expected to finish-grind the parting line surfaces. Mold Basics is no longer promoted by DME, as the Edge Base is intended to replace the Mold Basics product line. However, if you wish to order a “Mold Basics” mold base, this can be accommodated as a special.
 
Select Base was offered not as a specific standard, but as an ordering method in which a customer could select different or special features.  Like Mold Basics, Select Base is no longer promoted, however if you desire a Select Base then DME can accommodate as a special.  DME will review all special mold base requests and if feasible will quote accordingly.  It is important to note the difference between Select Base and QDS mold bases by DME.  QDS refers to reduced lead times, while Select base refers to ordering special features.  
 
The Edge Mold Base is a unique standard offering, modeled after the US Standard A-series.  However some of the features are in different positions versus DME A-Series.   Please refer to the appropriate pages in the DME Mold Bases and Plates catalog for details specific to the Edge Mold Base.  

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Mold Date Inserts

I have a dual ring insert, I have been told it is a DME part, but the size or length does not match what is shown in the DME Mold Components Catalog. Where would I find the proper details for the part that I have?

 If you have a mold date insert that has dimensions that do not match what is in the DME Mold Components  catalog, then we regret to say that you do not have a genuine DME part.  DME also does not offer special mold date inserts.   Please check with company that supplied the part or mold to you.    

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Mold Springs 

Are there any calculations or recommendations available to assist me with selecting a Mold Spring?

 Some customers call in for assistance in selecting mold and die springs offered by DME.  We present the following method.  If you require additional assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Please note: the terms compression vs. deflection, and force vs. load are used interchangeably in this text.

The general formula for compression springs is

F = L * K   where:

F = force or load [lb]
L = deflection or compression [in]
K = spring constant [lb/in]

Our catalog always lists the force at 1/10” compression, and we will call it DC (DME Constant). This force is actually 10% of standard K spring constant defined in engineering calculations. The Engineering K is the theoretical load at 1” deflection and the DC is the load at 0.1” deflection, so 

K = 10 * DC

The D-M-E catalog also lists the force at maximum allowable compression. The maximum compression is given as the percentage of the Free Length, although the length and percentage are seemingly inconsistent units.

The force at 0.1” compression is also marked with DC in the attached chart. The 50% Maximum Recommended Deflection means that the spring can be compressed by maximum 50% of the Free Length (we marked as FL in the chart), 30% deflection is when the spring is compressed by 30% of its Free Length.  Since the force is proportional to the compression, the Force-Length graph is a straight line.
To better explain the numbers provided in the DME catalog, for example, let’s consider the SMD2030 spring as shown on page 303 in the DME Mold Components catalog:
Catalog number:  SMD2030

From the Catalog:

FL (Free Length) = 7.50 [in]
DC = 1.2 [lb] (load at 0.1” deflection) => K = 10 * DC = 12 [lb/in]
F50 = 45.0 [lb] (load at 50% deflection)

Let’s double-check the F50 force given in the catalog by calculation:

L50 = 0.5 * FL = 0.5 * 7.5 = 3.75 [in] (50% deflection)
 
This is 3.75 / 0.1 = 37.5 times more than the 0.1 [in] deflection, so the F50 force is 37.5 times larger than the force at 0.1” deflection:

F50 = (0.5 * FL) * K = 3.75 * 12 = 45.0 [lb]

If we want to know the force at a certain (different) deflection, we need to multiply this number with the K spring constant.

For example: What would the load (force) be at 2.65 [in] deflection?

F = 2.65 * K = 2.65 * 12 = 31.8 [lb]

Usually we need a certain Pre-Load in the fully extended position in order to have a minimum force. The basic force calculation is the same as above.

If we know the Travel (working compression) plus the Pre-Load, their sum is the Total Compression. The Total Compression should always be less than or equal to the maximum recommended deflection. The Total Compression (which is the Travel plus Pre-Load) divided by the percentage in the catalog gives you the minimum necessary Free Length. If this Free Length is available in the catalog, this is the spring you need to pick. If this calculated minimum Free Length is not available, you need pick the next longer standard Free Length.

Please note that if the calculated forces are acceptable, always try to use longer Free Length springs, so the Total Compression is less than the maximum allowable compression. This increases the useful life of the spring.

Another example (the same spring):

Pre load: 0.125”

Travel (working compression): 3.4”

Spring can be compressed to: max 50% (from the catalog) = 0.5

Total Compression = Pre Load + Travel = 0.125 + 3.40 = 3.525 [in]

3.525 / 0.5 = 7.050 [in] required minimum Free Length => this is not listed in the catalog => pick the next longer standard Free Length spring => 7.5 [in] => Recalculate the actual forces as described above with the K spring constant given in the catalog for the 7.5 [in] Free Length spring

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Performance Core Pins (Beryllium-Free Copper Alloy Core Pins)

What are the thermal expansion differences and tolerance issues with Performance Core Pins vs. standard steel core pins?

 Performance Core Pins move heat much more rapidly than steel pins. This heat removal is done by conduction. Many times the core pin rests on a chill plate or is in contact with 70-80 degree Fahrenheit water. 
The most common problem is interference fit. For example, a .250 inch diameter Performance Core Pin has a tolerance applied of +.001/-.000. The corresponding Ejector Sleeve internal diameter (I.D.) has a tolerance of +0005/-.0000. Thus, the sleeve I.D. could be .0005 larger than the pin O.D. (outside diameter) or the pin could be .001 larger than the sleeve I.D.! This is a situation where galling will occur. Thus, the internal diameter of the ejector sleeve must be honed to accept the Performance Core Pin. 
At operating temperature the desired sliding fit between the two dissimilar materials should be .001/.0015. Beryllium-free copper alloy has a coefficient of thermal expansion of .0000097in./in./degree Fahrenheit. H-13 steel has a coefficient of thermal expansion of .0000058in./in./ degree Fahrenheit. This thermal expansion difference of the materials means the copper alloy will expand at a greater rate than the steel. The coefficient of thermal expansion must be considered when designing molds with materials that expand at different rates. Consideration to the cavity and core material expansion rates must also be considered. 
The plastic material shrinkage rate is another consideration when the copper alloy core pin is used in the mold. Shrink rates are typically reduced when copper alloy pins are used. 
One must ensure that the bearing length between the core pin and the ejector sleeve is not excessive. A general rule of thumb is that the bearing length should be 2 to 2-1/2 times the diameter of the core pin. 
NOTE: When the bearing length approaches one inch, problems may result from excessive bearing length. 
In conclusion, pay special attention to the working diameter tolerance of the copper alloy pin and the internal diameter tolerance of the ejector sleeve when grinding your pins to size. Remember a copper alloy pin conducts heat out of the steel and the copper alloy pin expands. Please note that the copper alloy pin will expand at even a greater rate when utilized in an environment of the 400º - 700º Fahrenheit range. You can always warm up your copper pin to the desired temperature and measure its thermal expansion. This can be done with or without being installed in an ejector sleeve. 

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Can DME Performance Core Pins be used with DME Ejector Sleeves?

 DME Ejector Sleeves  are designed to be used with DME Ejector Pins only, and are not designed to be used with any DME Core Pin.  The OD tolerance of a DME Performance Core Pin is +.0010/-.0000, while the ID tolerance of the sleeve is only +.0005/-.0000.  Please use a DME Ejector Pin or Blade in conjunction with a sleeve since the ODs have a negative tolerance.  

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Polimax HSB

I notice some Polimax thermocouples (or heaters with integral thermocouples) have different color codes for the thermocouple lead wire insulation. What do the different color code sets mean?

A: Note: The following applies to thermocouples (or heaters with integral thermocouples) sold out of the DME USA Hot Runner Catalog. It does not apply to heaters or thermocouples sold out of the DME Molding Supply Catalog. DME has taken steps to meet the growing needs of our customers around the world. One of these steps has been to progress to an “International” thermocouple color code per IEC 584-3 (Black = positive, White = Negative): Up to the recent past, most DME thermocouples (or heaters that have integral thermocouples) have had a color code based on the ASTM E230 standard, in which the positive thermocouple wire lead (magnetic) has a white color insulation, and the negative thermocouple lead has a red color insulation. This is traditionally common in North America: Please note that some products will continue to have the ASTM E230 standard color code (White=positive, Red = negative). A few products may be built to the DIN 43710 (Red = positive, Blue = negative) color code specification. Over time these will be changed to the IEC 584-3 (Black = positive, White = negative) color code specification. This color code is common in Europe: All three color codes shown above are correct. It will be important to ensure proper wire up of the thermocouple. If the thermocouple is wired up backwards (polarity of the thermocouple is reversed), the thermocouple will fail to give the temperature controller a correctly interpretable signal. For clarity, the following color code chart may be used:

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Sometimes I see a grey wire and purple wire with a Polimax nozzle heater. What wires are those?

A: The wires with purple or grey color wire insulator are power wires. Typically a Polimax heater that has a specific thermocouple color code set, will be delivered with power leads that have a different color, or, have an identifying strip, mark or heat shrink to help identify the power leads. Please note that if the power leads were identified by a strip, mark or heat shrink and the leads are cut, the identifying strip, mark or heat shrink will be removed. In such cases it is recommended to add marker tape to each power lead for ease of future maintenance.

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What is the processing temperature upper limit that I can use with my Polimax Hot Sprue Bushing?

A: It depends on the application, as well as both the bushing assembly and the tip or tip assembly used. The Polimax unheated head hot sprue bushing assemblies are not recommended to be used with applications requiring greater than 480°F (249°C) melt processing temperature. If you have an application that exceeds 480°F (249°C) melt processing temperature, it is recommended to use a Polimax hot sprue bushing assembly with heated head. The Polimax ring-gate and point-gate tip assemblies are available with standard needles as well as wearresistant needles. Standard Polimax needles are not recommended to be used with any filled thermoplastic, and are not recommended to be used in applications that require greater than 480°F (249°C) melt processing temperature. Wear-resistant Polimax needles can be used with filled thermoplastics (not recommended for thermoplastics that have greater than 30% filler including glass, mineral, talc, other), and are not recommended to be used in applications requiring greater than 635°F (335°C) melt processing temperature. Polimax sprue tips can be used with filled thermoplastics (not recommended for thermoplastics that have greater than 30% filler including glass, mineral, talc, other) and are not recommended to be used in applications requiring greater than 635°F (335°C) melt processing temperature. If you have an application that requires greater than 635°F (335°C) melt processing temperature, if the intended thermoplastic has greater than 30% filler, or if you would like a recommendation as to the parts best suited for your intended application, please contact your DME Customer Service Representative and you will be put in contact with a DME Technical Service Representative to review your application requirements.

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What is the upper limit injection pressure that I can use with my Polimax Hot Sprue Bushing assembly?

A: The Polimax Hot Sprue Bushing assembly is not to be used in applications that exceed 20000 PSI injection pressure. However please note that if you are approaching 20000 PSI injection pressure, the injection processing window for a typical injection molding machine will most likely become significantly reduced, which may affect your ability to mold good parts. In such cases it is recommended to refer to your injection molding machine specifications or to speak to a technical representative for the manufacture of your injection molding machine.

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On the Polimax Hot Sprue Bushing assemblies that have heated heads (there is a heater coil on the head of the bushing), I do not see an external thermocouple. But on the main body of the bushing, there is both an external thermocouple as well as a thermocouple that is integral to the heater. Which thermocouple am I supposed to use?

A: For the head zone, use the thermocouple that is integral to the heater. For the main body heater, it is recommended to use the external thermocouple, and only use the thermocouple which is integral to the main body heater, as a back-up should the external thermocouple fail.

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I have purchased a DME Polimax Hot Sprue Bushing assembly and I would like to reduce the amount of heat drawn at the tip. I would like to relieve or reduce the amount of land contact between the seal off diameter of the nozzle tip and the surrounding mold steel. Where can I find instructions for this?

A: Please contact your DME Customer Service Representative, who will put you in contact with a DME Technical Service Representative to review your application with you. Because the amount that may be relieved from the seal-off diameter of a Polimax ring gate retainer, extended ring gate retainer or sprue gate tip depends on the intended application, no standard instructions are posted at this time. Do not modify or relieve the seal-off diameter of a Polimax point gate retainer.

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Polivalve

What is the upper limit injection pressure that I can use with my Polivalve Hot Runner system?

A: The Polivalve Hot Runner System is not to be used in applications that exceed 20000 PSI injection pressure. However please note that if you are approaching 20000 PSI injection pressure, the injection processing window for a typical injection molding machine will most likely become significantly reduced, which may affect your ability to mold good parts. In such cases it is recommended to refer to your injection molding machine specifications or to speak to a technical representative for the manufacture of your injection molding machine.

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I notice some Polivalve thermocouples (or heaters with integral thermocouples) have different color codes for the thermocouple lead wire insulation. What do the different color code sets mean?

A: Note: The following applies to thermocouples (or heaters with integral thermocouples) sold out of the DME USA Hot Runner Catalog. It does not apply to heaters or thermocouples sold out of the DME Molding Supply Catalog. DME has taken steps to meet the growing needs of our customers around the world. One of these steps has been to progress to an “International” thermocouple color code per IEC 584-3 (Black = positive, White = Negative): Up to the recent past, most DME thermocouples (or heaters that have integral thermocouples) have had a color code based on the ASTM E230 standard, in which the positive thermocouple wire lead (magnetic) has a white color insulation, and the negative thermocouple lead has a red color insulation. This is traditionally common in North America: Please note that some products will continue to have the ASTM E230 standard color code (White=positive, Red = negative). A few products may be built to the DIN 43710 (Red = positive, Blue = negative) color code specification. Over time these will be changed to the IEC 584-3 (Black = positive, White = negative) color code specification. This color code is common in Europe: All three color codes shown above are correct. It will be important to ensure proper wire up of the thermocouple. If the thermocouple is wired up backwards (polarity of the thermocouple is reversed), the thermocouple will fail to give the temperature controller a correctly interpretable signal. For clarity, the following color code chart may be used:

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Sometimes I see a grey wire and purple wire with a Polivalve nozzle heater. What wires are those?

A: The wires with purple or grey color wire insulator are power wires. Typically a Polivalve heater that has a specific thermocouple color code set, will be delivered with power leads that have a different color, or, have an identifying strip, mark or heat shrink to help identify the power leads. Please note that if the power leads were identified by a strip, mark or heat shrink and the leads are cut, the identifying strip, mark or heat shrink will be removed. In such cases it is recommended to add marker tape to each power lead for ease of future maintenance.

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What is the processing temperature upper limit that I can use with my Polivalve Hot Runner System?

A: It typically depends on the application, as well as the tip or tip assembly used. All potential Polivalve applications are reviewed by the DME Technical Service team for feasibility. When using a high performance bodiless tip with standard conductive capsule, do not use with filled thermoplastics or with applications requiring more than 480°F (249°C) melt processing temperature. When using a high performance bodiless tip with wear-resistant conductive capsule, filled thermoplastic applications are possible depending on the application (not recommended for filled thermoplastics that have more than 30% filler including glass, talc, mineral, other). Not recommended for applications that require greater than 635°F (335°C) melt processing temperature. When using a regular bodiless tip, filled thermoplastic applications are possible depending on the application (not recommended for filled thermoplastics that have more than 30% filler including glass, talc, mineral, other). Not recommended for applications that require greater than 635°F (335°C) melt processing temperature. When using a full body tip or extended full body tip, filled thermoplastic applications are possible depending on the application (not recommended for filled thermoplastics that have more than 30% filler including glass, talc, mineral, other). Not recommended for applications that require greater than 635°F (335°C) melt processing temperature. In all cases, if you have an application requiring a valve gate that exceeds the recommended upper processing temperature or if you have an application requiring a valve gate that exceeds 30% filler, please contact your DME Customer Service Representative, and you will be put in contact with a DME Technical Service Representative to review your application requirements.

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I would like to download CAD files from the DME website for the Polivalve hot runner system, but I cannot find any CAD data to download. Where can I find this information or data?

A: At this time there is no Polivalve CAD data available for download from the DME Website. All Valve gate applications are reviewed in detail by the DME Applications Engineering Team. If a Polivalve hot runner system is ordered from DME, DME Applications Engineering will supply a CAD file for the system that will be delivered.

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I have purchased a DME Polivalve Hot Runner system, and I would like to reduce the amount of heat drawn at the tips for each nozzle assembly. I would like to relieve or reduce the amount of land contact between the seal off diameter of the nozzle tip and the surrounding mold steel. Where can I find instructions for this?

A: Please contact your DME Customer Service Representative, who will put you in contact with a DME Technical Service Representative to review your application with you. Because the amount that may be relieved from the seal-off diameter for a full-body or extended full-body tip depends on the intended application, no standard instructions are posted at this time. Do not modify or relieve the seal-off diameter of a Polivalve bodiless or high-performance bodiless tip.

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Pins

Recycling Inserts

Stack Molds and Other D-M-E Multi-Parting Line Systems

What does D-M-E offer regarding systems that increase productivity by reducing labor, capital investment, floor space and time?

D-M-E offers an industry-leading range of multi-parting line (MPL) systems, including several centering devices in the following categories:

• Stack Molds
  - Rack & Gear (pre-engineered design)
   - elical Gear (pre-engineered design assemblies and standard off-the-shelf components
   - Harmonic Arms (custom and engineered to suit your requirements

• Injection molding presses specifically designed for MPL systems (in collaboration with Milacron)

• Design Services – design assistance or complete system design

View animations of the D-M-E Stack Mold Rack & Gear and Helical Gear Systems at www.dme.net/stackmolds.

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Sintered Vent

Where can I find details regarding recommended pore size versus resin?

A: Please refer to the DME Mold Components catalog as we give application recommendations there. Please be aware that these are general suggested guidelines, and actual performance can vary with the specific grade and viscosity of the resin intended to be processed. If you need more specific information, or need to know at what pore size will a particular resin type or grade will pass through, please contact your resin supplier for information. Be prepared to specify the desired pore size that you are considering, as well as provide estimated processing parameters including estimated peak injection pressure.

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I cannot fit a DME Sintered Vent in my desired vent location. Can you recommend alternatives to the DME Sintered Vent in such situations?

A: The alternative to the DME Sintered Vent is a custom vent installed by the mold maker. Mold makers can create a vent by grinding a flat on an ejector pin, or use a hand grinder to create a groove or slit vent along the parting line of the mold. The disadvantages of these methods are: Non-uniformity of the vents and the vents cannot be easily replaced if they are damaged, the vents must be instead remachined. The use of standard vents is a much more cost-effective method of venting a mold.

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I would like to mold Urethane, and I would like to use a DME Sintered Vent in the mold. What DME Sintered Vent should I use?

A: Urethane tends to be very sticky and could potentially clog sintered vent pores very quickly. Some customers have had success using sintered vents with molding Urethane, and some other customers have not had success molding Urethane using sintered vents. Furthermore, not all Urethanes are made equal and some grades could clog a sintered vent faster than other grades. As a general rule we do not recommend using sintered vents with molding Urethane due to the gases and residues emitted. Instead we recommend that you machine a custom vent in the mold at the end of the flow front.

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I am molding Urethane, and I have trapped air bubbles mid-way in my molded part. Will Sintered Vents or Air Poppets assist me in removing those air bubbles?

A: First, we refer you to the question immediately prior to this question here. However, with respect to Urethane molding, Urethane is very compressible and it is possible to trap air in the Urethane resin melt back in the injection machine barrel. Through we cannot guarantee that the following suggestions will solve your molding issue, but you might consider not using suck-back during Urethane molding as this can introduce air into the Urethane melt. Another option is to adjust the back pressure to try to push any encapsulated air back up through the hopper as you auger the pellets. Again we repeat, we make no guarantee that the above suggestions will solve your molding issue. Air that is encapsulated in the Urethane melt can be compressed by means of the high pressure used to inject the melt into the part cavity, effectively making the air bubbles almost disappear. Once the part begins to cool and the pressure is relieved, the air bubbles can re-appear. Sintered vents are used to eliminate gassing/burn marks as a result of trapped air at the flow front. This could occur at a weld line. However trapped air mid-stream in a Urethane melt would not be removed by the Sintered vent. If you are attempting to remove trapped gas at the end of the flow front, we recommend you consider machining a custom vent into your mold at that location. Please note that DME Air Poppets are not designed to vent gas from a part cavity. DME Air Poppets apply a small amount of air in the part ejection cycle to assist in part ejection from the core or cavity. Therefore DME Air Poppets are not recommended for removing air bubbles found mid-stream in a molded part.

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Sprue Bushings

I would like to modify my DME Sprue Bushing.  What is permitted and how hard is the sprue bushing material?

 DME offers a few types of Sprue Bushings:  â€œA” series,  â€œB” series, “U” series, “UV” Series, “LN” Series, “AR” series, “UR” series, “L” series and Performance Sprue Bushings.  All but the Performance Sprue Bushings are made from steel with a base hardness of 43-45 HRc, and the “LN” series has an additional surface treatment that brings the surface hardness up to about 60-62 HRc. 
 
The Performance Sprue Bushings are made from a copper alloy and have an additional hardened 420 Stainless steel insert.  The “PSB” type Performance Sprue Bushings are directly replaceable with the existing DME “B” Series Sprue Bushings.  The “PSU” type Performance Sprue Bushings are directly replaceable with the existing DME “U” Series Sprue Bushings.
 
Note:  If you order a sprue bushing separate from your mold base, it is important to check the fit of the sprue bushing OD to your mold base OD.  In some cases mold makers will need to open up the sprue bushing hole in the mold base and fit to suit.  A tight tolerance of no more than 0.0004 inches clearance across the two mating diameters is recommended, as some resins will flash past 0.0005 inches clearance.  
 
When ordering a complete mold base from DME, customers must specify if the sprue bushing is to be installed (normally the sprue bushing is shipped with the mold base but not installed).  If requesting to ship the mold base with the sprue bushing installed, DME will ensure a proper fit between the sprue bushing and the mold base plates.  
 
If it is not requested by a customer to have the sprue bushing installed into the mold base, the sprue bushing will be shipped in the crate not installed, and the mold maker will need to check the fit between the sprue bushing and mold base plates and may have to modify as described above.
 
Most modifications are made to the front face of the sprue bushing as mold makers add a runner channel. 
 
Note:   That the distance from the underside of the sprue bushing head to the front of the sprue bushing (at the molding surface) is slightly oversized relative to standard plate thicknesses provided by DME. If the it is requested (when ordering a complete DME Mold Base) to have the sprue bushing installed, the front of the sprue bushing will be ground to ensure proper fit.  However, when ordering a sprue bushing separate, mold makers are expected to perform this secondary operation. 

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Threadless Pressure Plugs

What is the maximum temperature and pressure limit recommended for the DME Threadless Brass Pressure Plug (Inch type)?

 The maximum pressure permitted is 72 PSI.  The maximum temperature permitted for the component 300°F (149°C), however if running water, it is not recommended to take the temperature of the water cooling over 90% of water boiling temperature specific to your geographical region (water boiling temperature varies with air pressure, and air pressure varies with geographic elevation). 
 
WARNING: If you are running water cooling and manage to boil the cooling water, steam is generated which can cause scalds or burns.

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VectorForm Lifter Systems

What does D-M-E offer that will efficiently assist in the molding of parts with undercuts?

Among its line of products that are effective in the molding of parts with undercuts, D-M-E offers the popular VectorForm Lifter System. This product can be used with angles ranging from 5º (minimum) to 30º and beyond. The VectorForm Lifter System maximizes design flexibility and provides off-the-shelf installation for most lifter applications. Learn more about the VectorForm Lifter System and view an animation atwww.dme.net/vectorform.

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Wear Plates

What are the bronze-plated wear plates, ways, and gibs made from, and do you have any recommendations for lubrication?

 Bronze-plated wear plates, ways and gibs are made from low carbon, extra-fine grain steel electroplated with a bronze alloy.  The hardness of the bronze is about 180 Bhn minimum (for hardness conversion charts, please refer to the DME Mold Bases and Plates catalog).  The bronze plating has a natural lubricity and is ideal when used against hardened steel.  We recommend any good grade of light machine oil suitable for machine way applications to extend the life of the wear surface.

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Can I use two DME Bronze-Plated Wear Plates in mold with the two plates rubbing against each other?

 This is not recommended (having the two plates rub against each other).  The material that wears against the bronze-plated wear plate should be different and have a higher hardness than the bronze plating.  It is recommended to have at least 6-8 HRc hardness points difference (higher) in the material that is intended to rub against the bronze-plated wear plate, versus the surface hardness of the bronze-plated wear plate itself.

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